Repetition + Variation

In August 62 I started doing silkscreens. I wanted something stronger that gave more of an assembly line effect. With silkscreening you pick a photograph, blow it up, transfer it in glue onto silk, and then roll ink across it so the ink goes through the silk but not through the glue. That way you get the same image, slightly different each time. It was all so simple quick and chancy. I was thrilled with it.
– Andy Warhol

Sol LeWitt, Successive Rows of Horizontal, Straight Lines from Top to Bottom, and Vertical, Straight Lines from Left to Right, 1972

In Op-Art (60s)
Abstract subgenre, short lived but influential all across interior design, fashion and advertising. Op-artists were exploring the limits of perception, creating visually tense images and optical illusions.

Victor Vasarely – Orion C – 1962 (not quite Op-art yet) Victor Vasarely, Boglar II Victor Vasarely – Titan Bridget Riley – Movement in Squares Balm by Bridget Riley Bridget Riley – Cataract 1967 Bridget Riley looking mod in 1964 Edna Andrade – Black Dragons 1969 Edna Andrade finale 1979 Edna Andrade

Repetition + variation in textile design:

Anni Albers Second Movement – 1978

In minimalist music:

Steve Reich – Clapping music 1972

In early computer art:

Manfred Mohr Cubic Limit 72-77

In «Cubic Limit,» Mohr introduces the cube into his work as a fixed system with which signs are generated. In the first part of this work phase (1972–75), an alphabet of signs is created from the twelve lines of a cube. In some works, statistics and rotation are used in the algorithm to generate signs. In others, combinatorial, logical and additive operators generate the global and local structures of the images.

10 PRINT CHR$(205.5+RND(1)); : GOTO 10
From the Commodore 64 manual

In generative art

Every Icon (1997) John F. Simon, Jr.
Can you reverse engineer Every Icon?

Jared Tarbell – click to see it in real time Jared Tarbell – Quarter Round

Same principle applied to rotational symmetry:

Marius Watz – Illuminations B

Marius Watz – Illuminations B
Video here

We’ll cover more generative art in a couple of weeks…

In level design
Modular generative systems are often used in games to generate levels procedurally:

Forget me not


and also beyond the 2D grid



Fuji by Robert Hodgin (flight404)

Fuji, test render from flight404 on Vimeo.

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