Prof. Paolo Pedercini's Introduction to the Electronic Media Studio: Computation for the Arts
20th Century Avant-gardes
Brutally skipping a century of commercial graphic design, we should at least mention the graffiti/street art movement that has been pushing the boundaries of writing since the late 70s (influencing art, typography and design in the process). Here’s a project that study and celebrates this form:
Computational design is affecting typography as well.
Here are some examples that use tools like Geomerative in combination with complex systems simulations: